March 14, 2024
Share Capital Meaning English

Share Capital Meaning

Share capital is the money a company gets by selling its shares to investors. It’s like the company’s fund collected from shareholders, who in return, get a piece of ownership. Selling shares is a way for companies to raise money for growth and operations. 

What is Equity Share Capital?

Equity share capital is money that a company raises by selling its common shares to the public. This capital constitutes the equity foundation of the company, granting shareholders the right to vote and a claim on profits through dividends.

Equity share capital is vital for a company’s financial structure. It represents the ownership interest held by shareholders. Unlike debt, it doesn’t require repayment, but shareholders expect dividends and appreciation in share value. Equity share capital is permanent capital; it stays in the business as long as the company operates. It boosts a company’s creditworthiness and capacity for raising additional funds, either through debt or further equity issuance.

Share Capital Example

For instance, if Company XYZ issues 100,000 shares at a price of ₹10 each, the share capital raised is ₹10,00,000. This capital forms a significant part of the company’s equity structure and finances its operations and growth.

In this example, Company XYZ’s share capital of ₹10,00,000 is recorded in its balance sheet under equity. This capital demonstrates the company’s ability to raise funds from investors. It’s a long-term source of finance, unlike loans that need repayment. Shareholders, in return for their investment, gain ownership stakes and possibly dividends. The share capital can fluctuate with further share issuances or buybacks.

How to Calculate Share Capital? – Share Capital Formula

To calculate share capital, sum the total nominal value of issued shares. The formula is Share Capital = Number of Issued Shares × Nominal Value per Share. 

For example, if a company has issued 50,000 shares with a nominal value of ₹10 each, the share capital is calculated as 50,000 shares × ₹10 = ₹5,00,000. This figure represents the capital raised from shareholders, recorded under equity in the company’s balance sheet.

Classes of Share Capital

Classes of share capital are as follows:

  • Ordinary Shares: Common stock with voting rights and dividend eligibility.
  • Preference Shares: Shares with preferential rights to dividends and assets.
  • Deferred Shares: Shares with postponed rights to dividends or assets.

Ordinary Shares

Ordinary shares offer shareholders voting rights and dividends, but dividends depend on company profits and board decisions. They carry higher risk but potentially higher returns.

Preference Shares

Preference Shares provide dividends before ordinary shares and may have a fixed dividend rate. They usually don’t have voting rights.

Deferred Shares

Deferred shares are often used by founders or management, and these shares may not receive dividends until specific conditions are met, like other classes receiving their dividends first.

Types Of Share Capital

Types of share capital include:

  • Authorized Capital: Maximum amount of capital a company can legally raise.
  • Issued Capital: A portion of authorized capital that is offered to investors.
  • Subscribed Capital: Part of issued capital that investors have subscribed to.
  • Paid-up Capital: Amount paid by shareholders on subscribed shares.
  • Called-up Capital: Part of subscribed capital that the company has called for payment.

Authorized Capital

Authorized Capital is the ceiling set by a company’s charter documents, indicating the maximum share value it can issue. Increasing authorized capital might require legal formalities and shareholder approval, reflecting the company’s growth ambitions and potential for expansion.

Issued Capital

This represents the part of authorized capital that a company issues to investors. It reflects a strategic decision, balancing the need for capital against the desire to maintain control and manage shareholder dilution.

Subscribed Capital

Subscribed Capital refers to the portion of issued capital investors have committed to buying. It’s indicative of investor confidence in the company. Not all issued capital necessarily becomes subscribed if investor interest is lower than expected.

Paid-up Capital

This is the amount shareholders pay for the shares they have purchased. It can be less than the subscribed capital if the company issues partly paid shares, allowing shareholders to pay the remaining amount later.

Called-up Capital

This is the part of subscribed capital that the company calls for payment. The company may not call the entire subscribed amount immediately, providing flexibility to shareholders and allowing it to manage its capital requirements more effectively.

Difference Between Share And Share Capital

The main difference between share and share capital is that a share is an individual ownership unit in a company, while share capital represents the total value of all issued shares. 

Basis of ComparisonShareShare Capital
DefinitionAn individual unit representing ownership in a company.The aggregate value of all shares a company has issued.
PurposeRepresents fractional ownership and provides investors with a stake in the company.Serves as a fundamental source of finance for the company’s operations and growth.
NatureShares are dynamic; they can be bought, sold, and traded on the stock market.Share capital is a static figure, representing the total amount raised from shareholders at any given time.
RightsShares often come with certain rights such as voting in general meetings and receiving dividends.Share capital as a whole does not confer rights but represents the total investment of all shareholders.
Value ChangeThe value of shares fluctuates based on market conditions and company performance.Share capital remains constant unless the company issues more shares or buys back existing ones.
Legal StandingEach share is a part of the company’s share capital, representing a portion of the ownership.Share capital is the sum of the nominal value of all issued shares, reflecting the company’s equity capital raised from shareholders.

Importance Of Share Capital

The main importance of share capital is that it provides a company with the necessary funds for its operations and growth without the burden of repayment, unlike loans. It’s a cornerstone for business expansion and reflects investor confidence. 

Key importance of share capital includes:

  • Source of Permanent Capital: Share capital is a foundation for business stability and growth, providing a financial base that does not require repayment. This ongoing support is critical for maintaining business operations and funding long-term strategic investments. Unlike debt, share capital stays with the company throughout its existence, contributing significantly to its financial health and stability.
  • Creditworthiness: A strong share capital base boosts a company’s ability to obtain loans and credit facilities. It is a testament to the company’s financial stability, assuring creditors of its strong support and resource base. This improved creditworthiness translates into better loan terms, such as lower interest rates and more flexible repayment options, which strengthens the company’s position in financial negotiations and agreements.
  • Shareholder Confidence: A company’s high share capital demonstrates investor confidence in its potential and management. It reflects investors’ trust in the company’s vision and leadership, which frequently results in a stronger and more committed shareholder base. Such confidence is especially valuable during periods of expansion or market volatility, as it provides a significant cushion of support and has the potential to boost stock prices.
  • Business Growth: Share capital helps a company’s expansion, research, and development efforts. It provides critical funding without the burden of repayment, allowing businesses to invest in new projects and technological advancements. This capital injection is especially important for startups and businesses in their early stages of growth, as it allows them to scale operations and, as a result, increase market share and company value. 
  • Risk Distribution: Share capital distributes financial risk across a large shareholder base, reducing the burden on individual investors. This risk distribution makes investing in the company more appealing because it reduces potential downsides. Diversification is essential for maintaining a stable investor base and attracting new investment, as well as ensuring the company’s risk profile is balanced.

Share Capital Advantages And Disadvantages

The most significant advantage of share capital is that it enables you to raise funds without the obligation of repaying them. And disadvantage is that it also reduces the amount of control existing shareholders have over the company. 

Advantages 

  • Long-term Financing: Share capital offers a durable and stable source of finance, supporting both current business activities and future growth. It’s particularly critical for funding long-term projects and capital expenditures. This form of financing is beneficial for maintaining financial flexibility and operational autonomy, which are essential for the sustainability of any business.
  • No Repayment Stress: In contrast to borrowed capital, share capital does not require repayment, which alleviates financial burdens and interest obligations. This aspect allows for more effective cash flow management and strategic financial planning. The absence of repayment pressure is particularly significant for startups and companies in growth phases, where cash conservation is crucial.
  • Shareholder Engagement: Issuing shares fosters investor involvement and loyalty, creating a community of stakeholders who are invested in the company’s success. This engagement can lead to a more active and informed shareholder base, offering valuable insights and support for the company’s strategic direction. Engaged shareholders often become brand advocates, enhancing the company’s reputation and market standing.

Disadvantages

  • Ownership Dilution: One downside of issuing additional shares is diluting existing shareholders’ control and influence over company decisions. Such dilution can decrease their voting power and earnings per share. It’s a delicate balance to maintain investor relations and trust, especially if dilution leads to negative impacts on stock prices.
  • Dividend Expectations: Shareholders often expect regular dividends, creating a financial obligation for the company. Meeting these expectations requires adequate profits and can strain the company’s cash flows, especially in growth phases. Balancing dividend distribution with reinvestment demands is a key aspect of financial management, as inconsistent dividend policies can influence stock prices and investor sentiment.

To understand the topic and get more information, please read the related stock market articles below.

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What is Equity Share Capital

Share Capital Meaning – Quick Summary

  • Share capital is the funds a company raises by issuing shares, forming the foundation of its equity, and representing the shareholders’ stake, offering financial support for growth and operational activities.
  • Equity share capital, raised through the sale of common shares, forms the company’s equity base, providing shareholders with voting rights and claims on profits boosting the company’s creditworthiness for additional funding.
  • An example of share capital includes Company XYZ raising ₹10,00,000 by issuing 100,000 shares at ₹10 each, illustrating share capital as a significant part of the equity structure and a long-term finance source, subject to fluctuations with further issuances or buybacks.
  • Types Of Share Capital includes authorized, issued, subscribed, paid-up, and called-up capital, each serving different roles within a company’s financial structure, from the maximum legal capital limit to the actual amount paid by shareholders.
  • Calculating share capital involves multiplying the total number of issued shares by their nominal value, providing the total raised share capital value, essential for understanding a company’s financial base.
  • Classes of Share Capital comprises ordinary shares with voting rights, preference shares with preferential dividends and assets rights, and deferred shares, each class offering different rights and benefits to shareholders.
  • The main difference between share and share capital is that share represents an individual unit of company ownership, whereas share capital denotes the total value of all issued shares, highlighting the collective investment of shareholders.
  • The main importance of share capital is that it is critical for providing necessary funds for company operations and growth without repayment burdens, indicating investor confidence and supporting business expansion.
  • The most significant advantage and disadvantage of share capital is the ability to raise funds without having to repay them. On the other hand, it reduces existing shareholders’ control over the company. 
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What Is Equity Share Capital? – FAQs

What do you mean by share capital?

Share capital refers to the amount of money a company raises by issuing shares to investors. It represents the total investment shareholders make and is recorded as equity in the company’s balance sheet. This capital is crucial for funding company operations and growth initiatives.

What is share capital formula?

The formula for calculating share capital is: Share Capital = Number of Issued Shares × Nominal Value per Share.

Why is share capital important?

Share capital is important because it provides a company with the necessary funds for growth and operational activities without the need to repay. It enhances creditworthiness, indicates shareholder confidence, supports business expansion, and spreads financial risk among investors, making it a key element in a company’s financial health.

What are different types of share capital?

Different types of share capital include authorized, issued, subscribed, paid-up, and called-up capital. Each type serves a specific function in a company’s financial structure, ranging from the maximum amount that can be legally raised (authorized capital) to the actual amount paid by shareholders (paid-up capital).

Is share capital an asset?

Share capital is not considered an asset but rather an equity. It represents the funds brought into the company by shareholders by purchasing shares. In accounting terms, it is recorded under the equity section of the balance sheet rather than as an asset.

We hope that you are clear about the topic. But there is more to learn and explore when it comes to the stock market, commodity and hence we bring you the important topics and areas that you should know:

What is FPO Full Form?Silver Mini
What is Hedging in Stock Market?What is IPO Full Form
Debentures MeaningWhat Is Arbitrage Fund
Technical AnalysisDiamond Company Stocks In India
Stop Loss MeaningMarket vs Limit Order
How to Open a Commodity Trading Account?Best Indicator for Intraday
What is Dividend PolicyHow to Become a Stock Broker?
Iron CondorWhat is Sensex?

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